The abacus invented in China came to Japan in the 1570s.
It is said to be from the late to the end of the Muromachi period. People's lives at that time were barter
An era that consisted of robbery and wars.
Calculations are only done in the play of nobility until then general education was
There was not. Therefore, it can be said that the education of calculation began with the introduction of the abacus.
In fact, samurai first started using the abacus. In the era of battles that began with the Onin War,
Calculations are essential for the distribution of soldiers, the procurement of soldiers, and the buying and selling of weapons.
I couldn't win the battle if I couldn't calculate.
"Read-write abacus" learned for advancement
The education became widespread, the battle was gone,
From a peaceful era. Commerce develops and goods are bought and sold actively
As a result, "reading and writing abacus" becomes an indispensable condition for standing up,
Children will also learn the abacus at Terakoya and Chokken Service.
Eventually, from Edo to Meiji. As society changes drastically,
Once the abacus is banned by the Meiji government.
In an elementary school that was built in the Meiji 4th year(1872), it was called a calculation using Arabic numerals.
European mathematics was adopted and the education system of the Tokugawa era including the abacus
I tried to eliminate it.
Usage and shape change with the changing times
However, because the abacus has become established in the lives of the common people due to the long-standing tradition,
If you can't learn the abacus, there's no point in going, and there are many children who don't go to school.
The government thought that it was bad for the people to turn their back on education,
In the next year, we will accept calculation education in the abacus.
Nonetheless, the Meiji government quickly eliminated the abacus, a relic of Tokugawa,
I really want to spread the calculation.
On the other hand, those who teach the abacus have also spread so much that the abacus
Since it will not be abolished, we will come together and think about a compromise.
In the Edo period, how to use the abacus where various schools were prosperous,
Standardized to make teaching easier at school.
In addition, we have made it possible to use the Arabic numerals recommended by the government.
This will change the shape of the abacus itself.
Until the middle of the Meiji era, the upper five balls used abacus with two lower balls and five lower balls.
The abacus with one on the top and five on the bottom has become mainstream due to the unified usage.
Furthermore, with the widespread use of the decimal system, which can be calculated more quickly,
1 and 4 below.
After the war, the localization point was changed from the Japanese 4-digit separator to the Western 3-digit separator.
The current abacus form has been reached.
After a rapid decline from the golden age, to a boom again
After that, the abacus became more and more prosperous. In the Showa 30-40s,
4 to 5 out of 10 elementary school students are in the golden age of learning the abacus
I will rush. As a result, the abacus population has reached about 8 million people.
However, the practical value of the abacus was increased by the advent of calculators around 1975.
The abacus population is rapidly decreasing. The outbreak of the exam war,
After the evolution and rapid spread of IT and the start of the declining birthrate,
Around 2005, I was told that the abacus would no longer exist.
However, disappearance is avoided. The brain science boom that just started
As a result, the abacus was refocused as a tool for brain power development.